Year: 2022 | Month: June | Volume 12 | Issue 3

Long-Term Operation of Brick-Kilns Led Heavy Metal Contamination of Soil-Plant-Animal Continuum in Kashmir Himalayas

A.M. Bhat S. Bashir J.A. Sofi G.I. Hassan F.J. Wani G.N. Sheikh A.A. Dar


Brick kiln operation in Kashmir has One Health implications. The present study focused on the influence of brick kilns on Soil-Plant-Animal system vis-à-vis Pb, Cd and Cr. Lead concentration in soil, paddy straw, rice bran and cow milk was significantly higher (P<0.05) in areas closer to brick kilns. However, majority of the sera samples showed Pb in below detection limits. Cadmium concentration in soil and paddy straw representing area upto 500 meter distance from the kiln site was higher than the faraway and control sites. Chromium concentration in all the study samples save rice bran was significantly (P<0.05) higher in areas closer to brick kilns. Lead and Cr concentration in milk (from cows residing upto 500 meters) exceeded the maximum permissible levels. The study concluded that continuous operation of brick kilns and long duration exposure of Soil-Plant-Animal system to such ill influence affects the overall health of the continuum.


  • The influence of brick kilns on Soil-Plant-Animal system was studied in a village having the presence of functional brick kilns.
  • Maximum permissible level of Pb and Cr in milk of cows influenced by long term and scientifically ill designed brick kiln functioning poses a significant public health risk.

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