Year: 2023 | Month: December | Volume 13 | Issue 6

Vesicular Exanthema of Swine: A Historical Curiosity for Global Pig Industry

Manoranjan Rout and Neelesh Sharma


Vesicular exanthema of swine (VES), an acute, febrile, infectious viral disease of pigs derives its significance in veterinary medicine from its first detection in Southern California, USA in 1932 having clinically look-a-like features with three other prevalent porcine vesicular diseases caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV). The causative agent belongs to the genus Vesivirus in the family Caliciviridae. VESV serotypes are highly infectious in swine with morbidity of up to 90%. The spread of VES occurs chiefly in three ways: the feeding of raw garbage containing infected raw pork scraps, direct contact with infected swine, and contact with mechanical carriers, including people and vehicles. Vesicular lesions in the oral cavity on the epithelium of the snout, lips, nostrils, tongue, feet and mammary glands, soles, coronary bands and interdigital areas of the feet with lameness were the hallmark of disease in all species. Vesicles alike to those of FMD, VS and SVD are observed in VES, hence all these diseases are considered for differential diagnosis of VES. Clinical materials from vesicles e.g., vesicular fluid, epithelium covering vesicle should be collected in sterile glycerol phosphate buffer solution for diagnosis using molecular techniques. VESV can be readily propagated in mammalian cell cultures of African green monkey kidney or pig kidney cells. No vaccine was developed for VES. Being eradicated, there is no current threat of VES.


  • Vesicular exanthema of swine is an infectious viral disease of pigs that is clinically indistinguishable from that of foot and mouth disease in swine thereby bearing a significance.
  • The disease is eradicated being a historical curiosity in the global pig industry.

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@ Journal of Animal Research | In Association with Association of Mastitis

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